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Ratings provide a visual representation of a country’s performance on the indicator.


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SDG achieved

Challenges remain

Significant challenges remain

Major challenges remain

Information unavailable


Estimation of how much profit is shifted into tax havens and how much non-haven countries lose in profits from such shifting. Based on macroeconomic data known as foreign affiliates statistics. Negative values indicate profit shifting.

Long-Term Objective

Science-based/Technical optimum

The long-term objective for this indicator is a value of 0.


Thomas Tørsløv, Ludvig Wier, Gabriel Zucman, The Missing Profits of Nations, The Review of Economic Studies, (2022), rdac049, https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdac049

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Shifted profits of multinationals