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Displaying Ratings

Ratings provide a visual representation of a country’s performance on the indicator.


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SDG achieved

Challenges remain

Significant challenges remain

Major challenges remain

Information unavailable


Threats to terrestrial and freshwater species embodied in imports of goods and services.

Long-Term Objective

Science-based/Technical optimum

The long-term objective for this indicator is a value of 0.


Lenzen, M., Moran, D., Kanemoto, K., Foran, B., Lobefaro, L., and Geschke, A. (2012). International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations, Nature, 486, 109-112. (Data-set updated to 2018 by Isaac Russell Peterson, Matthew Selinkske and colleagues). Available from: doi: 10.1038/nature11145

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Terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity threats embodied in imports